The pressure of a gas is used in a pneumatic cylinder to perform work, specifically linear work. 'Pneumatic' is derived from Greek and refers to air, which is the least expensive and most common type of gas used in pneumatic cylinders. In addition to being easy to take in and compress, air does not pose the same danger as other gases. Some inert gases may be used instead, but these must be ordered or manufactured pre-compressed in tanks and are more limited in application.
Types of Pneumatic Cylinders
The cylinder contains a chamber for the compressed air to enter, a path for it to exit, a piston that does most of the work, and some type of action system that it is a part of. There are several types of pneumatic cylinders, and each provides a slightly different kind of force. The first and most simple is the single-acting cylinder, where a piston-oriented system forces compressed air through a solenoid valve into the back of the piston. A large amount of force is exerted on the piston face by this highly compressed air as it looks for the easiest way to leave. The surface area of the piston face, or the bore size, determines how easily the air can push the piston. The larger the bore, the easier it will be to move air--until weight itself becomes a significant factor. As the piston is pushed out, the air exits through escape valves that are carefully positioned further down the cylinder. The piston falls back into place until another burst of compressed air is fired into the cylinder.
You can also modify the single-acting cylinder by inserting a compressed spring mechanism between the end of the cylinder and the side of the piston opposite where the compressed air enters. The system functions similarly to the standard, except that after the compressed air is released, the piston is forced back to its original position at the end of the cylinder by a spring. In order for this system to function properly, it must move heavy loads repeatedly, and a greater amount of compressed air must be utilized.
Other cylinder systems use double-acting valves, or two streams of compressed air are injected alternately on either side of the piston, as explained by the International Fluid Power Society. The piston is pushed out by one burst of compressed air, and it is pushed back in by another burst. The pressure of the compressed air used in this system must also be carefully controlled, as it requires more compressed air than the others.
Airmax Pneumatics Ltd is a leading double acting pneumatic cylinder manufacturer in India. They have single & double acting pneumatic cylinders which are available in low to high bore & stroke size.
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